For the fastest, largest ionic currents, you need the VE-2.
The only amplifier that fully compensates for series resistance
and eliminates series resistance errors.
Voltage clamp the largest, fastest whole-cell currents under physiologic conditions.
Super stability gives super ease-of-use.
Just 2 controls quickly and easily sets compensation.
Familiar IV converter architecture has all the features you expect.
100% Rs Compensation is possible.
The Series resistance challenge:
Standard amplifiers can only compensate ~90% of series resistance (Rs).
In demanding applications, Rs voltage errors of only a few milivolts cause uncontrolled current activation and loss of the voltage clamp. (Eg.Ina in Neurons or cardiac myocytes).
Standard amplifiers can partially compensate for Rs (A), But become unstable when pushed too far (B).
Cell voltage during a membrane ionic current pulse using 90 % (A), and 97 % (B) Rs compensation found on other amplifiers. The voltage error is reduced to 5mV (B) but undampened oscillations indicate instability.
Rs=10 MOhm, Cm=50pF, Ipulse=20nA, Bandwidth=50kHz.
The VE-2 Solution Gives the VE-2 Advantage. Only the VE-2 compensates it all.
Only the VE-2 can compensate fully for Rs (C) (Sherman et. al., Biophys. J., 77:2590-2601, 1999.). There is no voltage error after ~200 µs in every cell you voltage-clamp, regardless of the current amplitude.
The VE-2 is stable even when over compensated.
Cell voltage during a membrane ionic current pulse using VE-2 Rs compensation, showing no voltage error after ~ 200 µs.
(Parameters same as above)
Record currents that were out of reach until now.
Record from the largest cells.
Finally, beat series resistance.
Alembic Instruments Inc. 3285 Cavendish Blvd. Suite 570 Montreal, Qc, H4B 2L9 Canada
Phone: 514.678.7924 Fax: 866.240. 2738